Ambiguous terms to avoid white paper

It strikes me as not particularly unusual, if maybe a little bit literary. This article analyses middle constructions in English, accounting for their key syntactic and semantic properties. The analysis rests on the observation that there are certain similarities between middle, tough and recipe-context null-object constructions, such as in ia-c.

Ambiguous terms to avoid white paper

As opposed to surveying a sample from the population, census surveying is where we invite everyone in our target population to take the survey. If everyone takes the survey, then we have conducted a census. Otherwise, we have data from a sample and need to use sampling statistics.

Averages mean, mode, and median are common measures of central tendency. The respondent is presented a set of items from which to select the most appropriate item single response checklist or all that apply multiple response checklist. A sampling technique where the researcher picks those who will provide the desired response.

Biased Survey Samples Chi Squared: A statistical test used to determine if the difference in frequency distributions between two survey data sets of categorical data is statistically significant.

Can be applied to rating scale data by treating each scale point as a category, eliminating concerns about the interval properties of the data needed for a t-test. As opposed to an open-ended question that generates a textual response, a closed-ended question generates a limited set of responses that can readily be coded in a data base with some number or symbol that represents a response.

Multiple-choice, ordinal, interval, and ratio questions generate closed-ended responses. A two-stage sampling approach used most appropriately where an interviewer is traveling to respondents and constraining travel costs is a concern.

In the first stage, several clusters for example, cities or towns in a country are randomly selected. In the second stage, members from the selected clusters are randomly selected for participation. The work or effort asked of the respondent to compete a survey question. Higher cognitive burden may lead to invalid responses or abandonment.

Complex questions lead to higher burden. Question types where multiple items are presented to the respondent who is asked to evaluate the items against each other, for example, forced ranking or fixed-sum question types.

A non-measurement error caused by the survey administration mode. It results from the likelihood that certain invitees will more likely respond to one administration mode than another. This is an argument for mixed-mode surveying.

Assessment methods

A type of response bias introduced by the phrasing of the invitation, introduction or survey questions that create a concern for privacy or some other effect on the part of the respondent. Likely leads to non-participation or item non-response. An Honest Survey Invitation? The extent to which the findings of research study seem reasonable.

Useful for branching beyond not applicable questions.


The range or interval within which the population mean likely lies. It indicates how well the sample mean represents the population mean. Can only be applied to survey questions that generate quantitative data interval and ratio data.

Statistical Confidence in a Survey: How Many is Enough? A statistic that defines the confidence interval. It can be generated for data from a survey question that generates quantitative data — interval and ratio data. The statistic incorporates the count of values and variance in the data set.

A promise typically conveyed in a survey invitation that data collected from a respondent will be handled appropriately and not shared with those who should not see it. Lack of a confidential guarantee may lead to non-response or a response bias in how questions are answered.

Related to but different from anonymity.

Ambiguous terms to avoid white paper

A type of response bias where the respondent provides answers that conform to societal norms. A scale presented as a continuous line with endpoints only.Although there are many papers examining ambiguity in Information Retrieval, this paper shows that there is a whole class of ambiguous word that past research has barely explored.

A reliable imperative of city living is to avoid accepting any piece of paper handed out on streetcorners. [10] Technically, a communicative act isn’t testimony at all if the ‘speaker’ does not intend to imply the truthfulness of what they communicate.

Software Requirements And The Use Of Weasel Words

avoid using the ambiguous term “affirmative action” altogether, opting instead to describe a program’s specific content in their questionnaires (for example, Kravitz et al., ). When concepts are unclear, misunderstandings can easily take root.

How Structural Claim Limitations Can Save Software Patents Law, New York (February 9, , AM ET) -- to avoid the alleged problems created by the use of functional limitations in terms. It is frequently argued that such claims are overbroad and unclear, and that the aggregation of such claims can result in innovation-stifling.

Second, speakers in Experiment 1 described targets with bare homophones less often in linguistically ambiguous displays compared to in control displays, showing that they can to some extent detect and avoid linguistically ambiguous expressions before producing them.

In other words, we cut you a break by breaking the breaks on "break" and a bunch of other ambiguous words, without taking a break! 75 meanings break 70 meanings cut 57 meanings run 52 meanings play 51 meanings make 48 meanings light 45 meanings clear, square, stick, white 24 meanings crack, direct, flat, follow.

Ambiguous Words