I stopped caring about my community, my neighbors, and those I serve. I stopped caring today because a once noble profession has become despised, hated, distrusted, and mostly unwanted. I stopped caring today because parents refuse to teach their kids right from wrong and blame us when they are caught breaking the law. Moms hate us in their schools because we frighten them and remind them of the evil that lurks in the world.
This body of work has burgeoned since the late 20th century when female scholars focused attention on women in a concerted effort to redress a longstanding gender bias in Africanist research. Equally relevant are the changes introduced by external forces in the 19th and 20th centuries: Together these interactions affected women with both gains and losses.
In hierarchical African societies, for example, elite women may hold positions of leadership, but their authority was reduced under colonization.
Generally women fare better in matrilineal societies than patrilineal ones, but Christianity, Islam, and modernity have promoted the shift to patrilineal societies. In contemporary matrilineal societies, however, husbands dominate in marriage, and males exercise more authority than females.
Marriage and reproduction are given a high value in African societies, placing women in an ambivalent position: Polygyny continues to be widely practiced though it is declining somewhat due to changing economic systems and the high value placed on education. Unlike in the West, women have been and continue to be the farmers, important because agriculture has been the source of food for families.
As traders women supply families with foodstuffs and manufactured goods, but as they are positioned in the informal economy, at times they attract negative attention from the state. Yet, the number of female politicians, scholars, lawyers, and activists is increasing throughout Africa. General Overviews Covering the period from untilthese overviews reveal significant changes in scholarly approaches when viewed chronologically; equally important, each one represents a different perspective.
The term women was used for research in the s, and historians continue to use it.
Gender was introduced in and has become the conceptual basis for interdisciplinary as well as anthropological studies. Paulme represents the initial comprehensive overview, a watershed moment in scholarship on women.
Each of the six essays and the introduction, authored by female anthropologists, demonstrates the value of research focused on women but contextualized in their very different societies. Hafkin and Bayone of the first interdisciplinary collections, is focused on women of East and West Africa and includes works by two African scholars and two male scholars.
The work is notable for its critique of early male scholars and several essays that have become required reading; the topics exhibit a wide reach, ranging from spirit mediums to economic change. Potash critically reviews the existing literature on gender in the chapter written by the author.
Especially valuable is the argument that integrating gender studies into the analysis of social processes economy, marriage, religion, enriches the understanding of those essential dynamics. Transitioning into the 21st century, scholars ventured into new domains.
Hodgson and McCurdy departs from previous studies to identify women who have disrupted the web of social relationships and reconfigured the gendered order in the process.Acclaimed American poet, author and activist Maya Angelou was born in St.
Louis, Missouri in Often referred to as a spokesman for African Americans and women through her many works, her gift. - Body Image in African American Women Body image is an important facet in understanding the phenomenon of eating disorders.
Body image concerns are important in the etiology and treatment of eating disorders and obesity (Smith, Thompson, Raczynski, and Hilner, ; Thompson, ).
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The multiplicity and diversity of African societies is reflected in the broad literature devoted to the study of women and gender in Africa, which encompasses several thousand ethnolinguistic groups and fifty-five sovereign states. This body of work has burgeoned since the late 20th century when.
African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa. The term typically refers to descendants of enslaved black people who are from the United States.
As a compound adjective, the term is usually hyphenated as African-American. Dr. Baturka, Hornsby, and Schorling conducted a study (Baturka et al., ) to explore the body image and weight issues among rural, African-American women.
To achieve this, they obtained a sample of nine black women from the Alliance Black Churches and fifteen women from the community health center.