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The controversy about whether this protein is not only necessary but also sufficient to initiate the infectious process has not been resolved; however, two studies, if confirmed, support the prime role of the protein.
In the first study, recombinant mouse PrP polymerized into fibrils was reported to have induced a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy when injected into healthy transgenic mice. In the second study, an infectious extract of brain tissue was incubated with normal brain tissue and then subjected to repeated cycles of sonication and further incubations with fresh normal tissue, continuing to a point at which by virtue of dilution no further residual infectivity from the original extract could have been present, but substantial infectivity was still detectable.
The primary structure of the protein does not differ from that of the protein in healthy individuals. The mechanism by which such protein misfolding leads to replication is presumed to be either a process of polymerization akin to inorganic crystal formation or a molecular constraint imposed by the misfolded protein upon normal molecules to assume its own abnormal configuration.
Characterization of the molecular steps in the misfolding process is thus a subject of intense study. The spread of infectious molecules is as puzzling as the original conversion event and subsequent misfolding process.
Tissue sampling has revealed widespread infectivity not only within the brain which contains by far the highest concentration of the infectious agent but also in the spinal cord, cerebrospinal fluid, lymphoreticular tissues, and, occasionally, at much lower concentrations in other peripheral organs.
Infectivity has never been demonstrated in any external secretion or excretion urine, feces, tears, sputum, or saliva.ProMED-mail Anniversary Award for Excellence in Outbreak Reporting on the Internet. Each year, ProMED-mail presents an award in honor of the anniversary of its founding in August Hemoglobin Oxygen Therapeutics LLC (HbO2 Therapeutics) is a leading developer and manufacturer of oxygen carrying solutions, a class of drug products that when administered intravenously can increase the amount of oxygen transported throughout the body.
The interest in prions and prion diseases was stimulated by the outbreak of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE or Mad Cow Disease) in Europe in the mid-nineteen-nineties. This is a relatively new area of study.
Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), also known as mad cow disease, is a serious, long-term disease affecting bovines. Mad cow disease was first identified in the United Kingdom in .
0. Laplanche et grupobittia.com no statistical association of any of 5 doppel alleles to sporadic CJD, iatrogenic CJD or nvCJD (two French cases examined); they note T26M may not be functional as it near the inferred signal peptide boundary possibly affecting processing to mature protein; P56L disrupts a conserved doppel proline which may have a special structural role as a imino acid not.
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