These vertical lines are met with right angles made by the Several elements enter into the balance of Grant Wood's famous painting, American Gothic: These vertical lines are met with right angles made by the horizontal lines of the roof.
Overview[ edit ] Any piece of art is in theory capable of being analysed in terms of style; neither periods nor artists can avoid having a style, except by complete incompetence,  and conversely natural objects or sights cannot be said to have a style, as style only results from choices made by a maker.
Artists in recent developed societies tend to be highly conscious of their own style, arguably over-conscious, whereas for earlier artists stylistic choices were probably "largely unselfconscious".
The names of most older styles are the invention of art historians and would not have been understood by the practitioners of those styles.
Some originated as terms of derision, including GothicBaroqueand Rococo. Western art, like that of some other cultures, most notably Chinese arthas a marked tendency to revive at intervals "classic" styles from the past. Classical art criticism and the relatively few medieval writings on aesthetics did not greatly develop a concept of style in art, or analysis of it,  and though Renaissance and Baroque writers on art are greatly concerned with what we would call style, they did not develop a coherent theory of it, at least outside architecture.
Giorgio Vasari set out a hugely influential but much-questioned account of the development of style in Italian painting mainly from Giotto to his own Mannerist period. He stressed the development of a Florentine style based on disegno or line-based drawing, rather than Venetian colour.
With other Renaissance theorists like Leon Battista Alberti he continued classical debates over the best balance in art between the realistic depiction of nature and idealization of it; this debate was to continue until the 19th century and Opinion on american gothic painting advent of Modernism.
This type of art history is also known as formalismor the study of forms or shapes in art. Terms originated to describe architectural periods were often subsequently applied to other areas of the visual arts, and then more widely still to music, literature and the general culture.
A major area of debate in both art history and archaeology has been the extent to which stylistic change in other fields like painting or pottery is also a response to new technical possibilities, or has its own impetus to develop the kunstwollen of Rieglor changes in response to social and economic factors affecting patronage and the conditions of the artist, as current thinking tends to emphasize, using less rigid versions of Marxist art history.
Remarks on the History of Thingshave made notable contributions to the debate, which has also drawn on wider developments in critical theory.
The use of terms such as Counter-Maniera appears to be in decline, as impatience with such "style labels" grows among art historians. In Marcia B. Hall, a leading art historian of 16th-century Italian painting and mentee of Sydney Joseph Freedberg —who invented the term, was criticised by a reviewer of her After Raphael: Painting in Central Italy in the Sixteenth Century for her "fundamental flaw" in continuing to use this and other terms, despite an apologetic "Note on style labels" at the beginning of the book and a promise to keep their use to a minimum.
Individual style[ edit ] Traditional art history has also placed great emphasis on the individual style of an artist: The identification of individual style in works is "essentially assigned to a group of specialists in the field known as connoisseurs ",  a group who centre in the art trade and museums, often with tensions between them and the community of academic art historians.
Giovanni Morelli — pioneered the systematic study of the scrutiny of diagnostic minor details that revealed artists' scarcely conscious shorthand and conventions for portraying, for example, ears or hands, in Western old master paintings.
His techniques were adopted by Bernard Berenson and others, and have been applied to sculpture and many other types of art, for example by Sir John Beazley to Attic vase painting.
Though artists' training was before Modernism essentially imitative, relying on taught technical methods, whether learnt as an apprentice in a workshop or later as a student in an academy, there was always room for personal variation.
The idea of technical "secrets" closely guarded by the master who developed them, is a long-standing topos in art history from Vasari's probably mythical account of Jan van Eyck to the secretive habits of Georges Seurat. In Chinese art it is just as deeply held, but traditionally regarded as a factor in the appreciation of some types of art, above all calligraphy and literati paintingbut not others, such as Chinese porcelain;  a distinction also often seen in the so-called decorative arts in the West.
Chinese painting also allowed for the expression of political and social views by the artist a good deal earlier than is normally detected in the West. Manner[ edit ] "Manner" is a related term, often used for what is in effect a sub-division of a style, perhaps focused on particular points of style or technique.
It is a somewhat outdated term in academic art history, avoided because it is imprecise. When used it is often in the context of imitations of the individual style of an artist, and it is one of the hierarchy of discreet or diplomatic terms used in the art trade for the relationship between a work for sale and that of a well-known artist, with "Manner of Rembrandt " suggesting a distanced relationship between the style of the work and Rembrandt's own style.
Style in archaeology[ edit ] Paleolithic stone tools grouped by period In archaeologydespite modern techniques like radiocarbon datingperiod or cultural style remains a crucial tool in the identification and dating not only of works of art but all classes of archaeological artefactincluding purely functional ones ignoring the question of whether purely functional artefacts exist.
This is used to construct typologies for different types of artefacts, and by the technique of seriation a relative dating based on style for a site or group of sites is achieved where scientific absolute dating techniques cannot be used, in particular where only stone, ceramic or metal artefacts or remains are available, which is often the case.
In contrast to recent trends in academic art history, the succession of schools of archaeological theory in the last century, from culture-historical archaeology to processual archaeology and finally the rise of post-processual archaeology in recent decades has not significantly reduced the importance of the study of style in archaeology, as a basis for classifying objects before further interpretation.Several elements enter into the balance of Grant Wood's famous painting, American Gothic: line, shape, color, design, symbolism--even a certain ambiguity.
Line- For the most part, there is the. Critical Response to Wood's American Gothic Painting. Artist Grant Wood might have thought his satire of small town Midwestern America was funny and right on target, but many art critics initially found his painting American Gothic to be mean spirited and insulting toward the simple, a low blow toward the hardworking men and women of the .
American Gothic: The Biography of Grant Wood's American Masterpiece [Thomas Hoving] on grupobittia.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Celebrating the 75th Anniversary of the Controversial Unveiling You saw the cover of this book and paused.
You recognized the stern countenance of the old farmer and the dour mien of his companion. You recognized the pitchfork and the gabled roof.
Quirky, weird, unusual, offbeat, and just downright fun American Roadside Attractions. American Gothic is a painting by Grant Wood in the collection of the Art Institute of Chicago. Wood was inspired to paint the American Gothic House along with "the kind of people I fancied should live in that house." He painted it in , depicting a farmer standing beside a woman who has been interpreted to be his daughter or his wife.
Shy Guy Gothic - American Gothic Print - American Gothic Parody - Shy Guy Art - Nintendo Painting - Mario Brothers Villain Print - Game Art.