The review concluded that all of the studies lacked external validity and that therefore: Many of these studies suffer from similar limitations and weaknesses, with the main obstacle being the difficulty in acquiring representative, random samples on a virtually invisible population. Many lesbian and gay parents are not open about their sexual orientation due to real fears of discrimination, homophobia, and threats of losing custody of their children.
This increase has primarily been the result of two recent developments in the realm of child-custody litigation, namely, the replacement of the tender-years presumption with the best-interests-of-the-child presumption and the increasing popularity of the joint-custodial concept.
The assumption was made that mothers, by virtue of the fact that they are female, are intrinsically superior to men as child rearers.
Accordingly, the father had to provide to the court compelling evidence of serious maternal deficiencies before the court would even consider assigning primary custodial status to the father.
Under its replacement, the best-interests-of-the-child presumption, the courts were instructed to ignore gender in custodial considerations and evaluate only parenting capacity, especially factors that related to the best interests of the child.
This change resulted in a burgeoning of custody litigation as fathers now found themselves with a greater opportunity to gain primary custodial status.
Soon thereafter the joint-custodial concept came into vogue, eroding even further the time that custodial mothers were given with their children. Again, this change also brought about an increase and intensification of child-custody litigation.
In association with this burgeoning of child-custody litigation, we have witnessed a dramatic increase in the frequency of a disorder rarely seen previously, a disorder that I refer to as the parental alienation syndrome PAS. Accordingly, inI introduced the term parental alienation syndrome to cover the combination of these two contributing factors.
In accordance with this use of the term I suggest this definition of the parental alienation syndrome: The parental alienation syndrome PAS is a disorder that arises primarily in the context of child-custody disputes. Specifically, there are many who use the term as synonymous with parental brainwashing or programming.
Those who do this have missed an extremely important point regarding the etiology, manifestations, and even the treatment of the PAS. Because the campaign of denigration involves the aforementioned combination, I decided a new term was warranted, a term that would encompass both contributory factors.
The term has been used to apply to the major categories of parental abuse: Such application indicates a misunderstanding of the PAS.
The term PAS is applicable only when the target parent has not exhibited anything close to the degree of alienating behavior that might warrant the campaign of vilification exhibited by the child. Rather, in typical cases the victimized parent would be considered by most examiners to have provided normal, loving parenting or, at worst, exhibited minimal impairments in parental capacity.
It is the exaggeration of minor weaknesses and deficiencies that is the hallmark of the PAS. This does not preclude the existence of truly innocent parents who are indeed being victimized by an unjustifiable PAS campaign of denigration. It is for this reason that detailed inquiry is often crucial if one is to make a proper diagnosis.
Joint interviews, with all parties in all possible combinations, will generally help uncover "The Truth" in such situations. Such alienating parents exhibit a serious parenting deficit, a deficit that should be given serious consideration by courts when deciding primary custodial status.
Emotional abuse is much more difficult to assess objectively, especially because many forms of emotional abuse are subtle and difficult to verify in a court of law. The PAS, however, is most often readily identified, and courts would do well to consider its presence a manifestation of emotional abuse by the programming parent.
Accordingly, courts do well to consider the PAS programming parent to be exhibiting a serious parental deficit when weighing the pros and cons of custodial transfer. In this book, I provide specific guidelines regarding the situations when such transfer is not only desirable, but even crucial, if the children are to be protected from lifelong alienation from the targeted parent.
The DSM committees justifiably are quite conservative with regard to the inclusion of newly described clinical phenomena and require many years of research and publications before considering inclusion of a disorder, and this is as it should be.Impact of parenting styles on child development Date: 23 Jan Keywords: issues of parenting styles, parenting style, patterns of parenting styles, social class and parenting styles.
All journals are subjected to a single-blind peer review process.
The peer-review process is done by esteemed reviewers with an in-depth knowledge of the specialized discipline and purpose of the process. Peer-reviewed articles are assessed and critiqued by the scientists and experts in the same field after the article is distributed for.
Although these findings imply that religion may offer single mothers valuable coping resources, the global indices of religiousness in these studies obscure that some spiritual beliefs and behaviors may exacerbate poor parenting in stressful circumstances.
Although peer-reviewed studies were published in the past decade on religion and. Peer-reviewed articles lead to many articles in a chain of information. One drawback to the peer-review process is that articles may not appear for one or two years after they are written.
For this reason they are not the best sources to seek for hot, news-driven topics. A Review of Childrearing in African American Single parent families. Nonmarital parenting. Development.
Outcomes Over the past two decades, researchers interested in children and families have broadened the quantitative studies published in . The objective of this study was to shed some light on how these stepfamilies deal with issues of parenting style and practices.
We reviewed the Brazilian and international literature concerning parenting styles and practices in stepfamilies. Parenting style and practices in stepfamilies. Abstract; Fulltext Review by Single-blind.