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The First Backward Classes Commission had a broad-based membership, the Second Commission seemed to be shaped on partisan lines, composed of members only from the backward castes. Of its five members, four were from the OBCs; the remaining one, L.
Naik, was from the Dalit community, and the only member from the scheduled castes in the Commission. Reservation policy[ edit ] The Mandal Commission adopted various methods and techniques to collect the necessary data and evidence.
In order to identify who qualified as an "other backward class," the commission adopted eleven criteria which could be grouped under three major headings: Weighting indicators[ edit ] As the above three groups are not of equal importance for the purpose, separate weightage was given to indicators in each group.
All the Social indicators were given a weightage of 3 points each, 'educational indicators were given a weightage of 2 points each and economic indicators were given a weightage of 1 point each. Economic, in addition to Social and Educational Indicators, were considered important as they directly flowed from social and educational backwardness.
This also helped to highlight the fact that socially and educationally backward classes are economically backward also. These 11 indicators were applied to all the castes covered by the survey for a particular state. So the commission used census data to calculate the number of OBCs. The population of Hindu OBCs was derived by subtracting from the total population of Hindus, the population of SC and ST and that of forward Hindu castes and communities, and it worked out to be 52 per cent.
Even if an advanced class child's intelligence quotient was much lower compared to the child of backward class, chances are that the former will still beat the latter in any competition where selection is made on the basis of 'merit'. In fact, what we call 'merit' in an elitist society is an amalgam of native endowments and environmental privileges.
A child from an advanced class family and that of a backward class family are not 'equals' in any fair sense of the term and it will be unfair to judge them by the same yard-stick.
The conscience of a civilised society and the dictates of social justice demand that 'merit' and 'equality' are not turned into a fetish and the element of privilege is duly recognised and discounted for when 'unequal' are made to run the same race.
Thus, the various impacts of the British rule on the Hindu caste system, viz. Two more ingredients which were very weak in the British period, viz. However, as this would have gone against the earlier judgement of the Supreme Court of India which had laid down that reservation of posts must be below 50 per cent, the proposed reservation for OBCs had to be fixed at a figure, which when added to In view of this legal constraint the Commission was obliged to recommend a reservation of 27 per cent only for backward castes.
By then, the Janata government had fallen. The following Congress governments under Indira Gandhi and Rajiv Gandhi were not willing to act on the Report due to its politically contentious nature. After being neglected for 10 years, the Report was accepted by the National Front government led by V.
On August 7,the National Front government declared that it would provide 27 per cent reservations to "socially and educationally backward classes" for jobs in central services and public undertaking.
Having released the Government Order on 13 August, V.
Singh announced its legal implementation in his Independence Day speech two days later. Indra Sawhney, the petitioner in this case, made three principal arguments against the Order: Caste was not a reliable indicator of backwardness.
The efficiency of public institutions was at risk. The five-judge Bench of the Supreme Court issued a stay on the operation of the Government Order of 13 August till the final disposal of the case. On 16 Novemberthe Supreme Court, in its verdict, upheld the government order, being of the opinion that caste was an acceptable indicator of backwardness.
The data shows that out of 79, posts, employees from the OBCs occupied only 9, of them. Singhthe Prime Minister at the time, tried to implement its recommendations in On 19 SeptemberRajiv Goswamia student of Deshbandhu CollegeDelhicommitted self-immolation in protest of the government's actions.
His act made him the face of the Anti-Mandal agitation then. This further sparked a series of self-immolations by other upper-caste college students like him, whose own hopes of getting a government job were now at threat, and led to a formidable student movement against job reservations for Backward Castes in India.
Shops were kept closed, and schools and colleges were shut down by student agitators.In , the hottest year on record, the challenges of a thirsty, fast-developing planet were more urgent than ever.
From record-breaking drought in Sao Paulo to intense air pollution in India’s cities, problems at the nexus of environment, economic opportunity and human well-being were painfully evident.
The Forum serves as a catalyst for the development of a sustainable and competitive energy sector in India. India's energy requirements are enormous and the demand is growing but our resources are limited both in physical and financial terms. Justice Verma Committee was constituted to recommend amendments to the Criminal Law so as to provide for quicker trial and enhanced punishment for criminals accused of .
The CMA investigated the supply and acquisition of energy in Great Britain and has published its final orders and undertakings. Nuclear Power in India (Updated September ) India has a largely indigenous nuclear power programme. The Indian government is committed to growing its nuclear power capacity as part of its massive infrastructure development programme.
National Advisory Committee on Creative and Cultural Education All Our Futures: Creativity, Culture and Education Report to the Secretary of .