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Meet seven people connected to this influential black revolutionary group. Shortening its name to the Black Panther Party, the organization immediately sought to set itself apart from African American cultural nationalist organizations, such as the Universal Negro Improvement Association and the Nation of Islamto which it was commonly compared.
Although the groups shared certain philosophical positions and tactical features, the Black Panther Party and cultural nationalists differed on a number of basic points. For instance, whereas African American cultural nationalists generally regarded all white people as oppressors, the Black Panther Party distinguished between racist and nonracist whites and allied themselves with progressive members of the latter group.
Also, whereas cultural nationalists generally viewed all African Americans as oppressed, the Black Panther Party believed that African American capitalists and elites could and typically did exploit and oppress others, particularly the African American working class. Perhaps most importantly, whereas cultural nationalists placed considerable emphasis on symbolic systems, such as language and imagery, as the means to liberate African Americans, the Black Panther Party believed that such systems, though important, are ineffective in bringing about liberation.
It considered symbols as woefully inadequate to ameliorate the unjust material conditions, such as joblessness, created by capitalism. In the s this socialist economic outlook, informed by a Marxist political philosophy, resonated with other social movements in the United States and in other parts of the world.
In fact, in FBI director J. Edgar Hoover considered the Black Panther Party the greatest threat to national security. Impact and repression The Black Panther Party came into the national spotlight in May when a small group of its members, led by its chair, Seale, marched fully armed into the California state legislature in Sacramento.
Emboldened by the view that African Americans had a constitutional right to bear arms based on the Second Amendment of the U. Constitutionthe Black Panther Party marched on the body as a protest against the pending Mulford Act.
With this newfound publicity, the Black Panther Party grew from an Oakland-based organization into an international one with chapters in 48 states in North America and support groups in JapanChinaFrance, EnglandGermanySwedenMozambiqueSouth AfricaZimbabwe, Uruguayand elsewhere.
In addition to challenging police brutality, the Black Panther Party launched more than 35 Survival Programs and provided community help, such as education, tuberculosis testing, legal aidtransportation assistance, ambulance service, and the manufacture and distribution of free shoes to poor people.
Notwithstanding the social services the Black Panther Party provided, the FBI declared the group a communist organization and an enemy of the U.
Davis did, however, have strong connections with the party and taught political education classes for it. At about the same time, Davis became involved in the case of three African American inmates at Soledad Prison who had been accused of murdering a guard.
Ultimately she was acquitted of all the charges against her by an all-white jury. Assata Shakur went into exile in Cuba. Kathleen Cleaver earned a law degree and took an appointment as a professor.
After returning from exile in Cuba, Newton was killed in a drug dispute in Augustperishing in an alley in West Oakland, not far from where he and Seale had founded the first Black Panther Party chapter.
Activists in Australian urban centres, for example, incorporated the works of Black Panther Party members into their social movements. The oppressed Dalits in India emulated the rhetoric of the Black Panthers, and the representatives of the Vietnamese National Liberation Frontwho called themselves Yellow Panthers, also used the organization as a model.Selecting the Survey Method Selecting the type of survey you are going to use is one of the most critical decisions in many social research contexts.
You'll see that there are very few simple rules that will make the decision for you -- you have to use your judgment to balance the advantages and disadvantages of different survey types. Condition: Health condition(s) or problem(s) studied.
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TO ***** ***** Select an organization that you would like to study throughout this course. You may select an organization you currently work for, one that you would like to work for in the future, or one that is currently being discussed in the media.
Assume that you are a consultant hired by this organization to study it and provide recommendations about your findings. Much as in the classical organization, Hierarchy is an important part of the human relations organization. The main difference in the human relations context is that managers or superiors are encouraged to meet the higher order needs of the employees (which was not the case in the classical organization).
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