The argument of socrates

Internet Sources The most interesting and influential thinker in the fifth century was Socrateswhose dedication to careful reasoning transformed the entire enterprise. Since he sought genuine knowledge rather than mere victory over an opponent, Socrates employed the same logical tricks developed by the Sophists to a new purpose, the pursuit of truth.

The argument of socrates

The Latin form elenchus plural elenchi is used in English as the technical philosophical term. In Plato's early dialogues, the elenchus is the technique Socrates uses to investigate, for example, the nature or definition of ethical concepts such as justice or virtue.

According to Vlastos, [5] it has the following steps: Socrates' interlocutor asserts a thesis, for example "Courage is endurance of the soul", which Socrates considers false and targets for refutation.

After undermining Crito’s appeal to the opinion of the many, Socrates starts the central argument of the dialogue. Socrates emphasizes that what follows might not be acceptable to the many – this claim explains in retrospective the importance of arguing against the relevance/importance of the majority’s opinion. (Apology 31ea) The year is B.C.E the stage is Athens and these are the words that famed philosopher Socrates spoke as he stood in an Athenian court room accused of corrupting the youth of the city, of not believing in the gods and introducing new gods, and of making the weaker argument . The main argument in The Apology by famous ancient Greek philosopher Plato is whether, notorious speaker and philosopher Socrates is corrupting the youth by preaching ungodly theories and teaching them unlawful ideas that do .

Socrates secures his interlocutor's agreement to further premises, for example "Courage is a fine thing" and "Ignorant endurance is not a fine thing". Socrates then argues, and the interlocutor agrees, that these further premises imply the contrary of the original thesis; in this case, it leads to: Socrates then claims that he has shown that his interlocutor's thesis is false and that its negation is true.

One elenctic examination can lead to a new, more refined, examination of the concept being considered, in this case it invites an examination of the claim: Most Socratic inquiries consist of a series of elenchi and typically end in puzzlement known as aporia. Frede [6] points out that Vlastos' conclusion in step 4 above makes nonsense of the aporetic nature of the early dialogues.

Having shown that a proposed thesis is false is insufficient to conclude that some other competing thesis must be true. Rather, the interlocutors have reached aporiaan improved state of still not knowing what to say about the subject under discussion.

The exact nature of the elenchus is subject to a great deal of debate, in particular concerning whether it is a positive method, leading to knowledge, or a negative method used solely to refute false claims to knowledge. Guthrie in The Greek Philosophers sees it as an error to regard the Socratic method as a means by which one seeks the answer to a problem, or knowledge.

Guthrie claims that the Socratic method actually aims to demonstrate one's ignorance. Socrates, unlike the Sophistsdid believe that knowledge was possible, but believed that the first step to knowledge was recognition of one's ignorance.

Guthrie writes, "[Socrates] was accustomed to say that he did not himself know anything, and that the only way in which he was wiser than other men was that he was conscious of his own ignorance, while they were not. The essence of the Socratic method is to convince the interlocutor that whereas he thought he knew something, in fact he does not.

Such an examination challenged the implicit moral beliefs of the interlocutors, bringing out inadequacies and inconsistencies in their beliefs, and usually resulting in aporia. In view of such inadequacies, Socrates himself professed his ignorance, but others still claimed to have knowledge.

Socrates believed that his awareness of his ignorance made him wiser than those who, though ignorant, still claimed knowledge. While this belief seems paradoxical at first glance, it in fact allowed Socrates to discover his own errors where others might assume they were correct.

This claim was known by the anecdote of the Delphic oracular pronouncement that Socrates was the wisest of all men. Or, rather, that no man was wiser than Socrates. Socrates used this claim of wisdom as the basis of his moral exhortation.

Accordingly, he claimed that the chief goodness consists in the caring of the soul concerned with moral truth and moral understanding, that "wealth does not bring goodness, but goodness brings wealth and every other blessing, both to the individual and to the state", and that "life without examination [dialogue] is not worth living".

It is with this in mind that the Socratic method is employed. The motive for the modern usage of this method and Socrates' use are not necessarily equivalent.The main argument in The Apology by famous ancient Greek philosopher Plato is whether, notorious speaker and philosopher Socrates is corrupting the youth by preaching ungodly theories and teaching them unlawful ideas that do harm to individuals and society.

The argument of socrates

Socrates infuriates Polus with the argument that it is better to suffer an injustice than commit one (Gorgias a-d). Polus agrees that it is more shameful to commit an injustice, but maintains it is not worse.

The worst thing, in his view, is to suffer injustice. Socrates — ‘When the debate is lost, slander becomes the tool of the loser.’.

After undermining Crito’s appeal to the opinion of the many, Socrates starts the central argument of the dialogue. Socrates emphasizes that what follows might not be acceptable to the many – this claim explains in retrospective the importance of arguing against the relevance/importance of the majority’s opinion.

After undermining Crito’s appeal to the opinion of the many, Socrates starts the central argument of the dialogue. Socrates emphasizes that what follows might not be acceptable to the many – this claim explains in retrospective the importance of arguing against the relevance/importance of .

The Socratic method, also known as maieutics, method of elenchus, elenctic method, or Socratic debate, is a form of cooperative argumentative dialogue between individuals, based on asking and answering questions to stimulate critical thinking and to draw out ideas and underlying presuppositions.

It is a dialectical method, involving a discussion .

Socratic method - Wikipedia