Tsarist government The Holy Synod inwhich led the church and was a government department. It was one of the few remaining autocracies:
The surgeon Ludwik Rydygier and his assistants.
That the intelligentsia were aware of their social status and of their duties to society: Educating the youth with the nationalist objective to restore the Republic of Poland; preserving the Polish language; and love of the Fatherland.
In their part of occupied Poland, the Soviet Union proceeded with the extermination of the Polish intelligentsia with operations such as the Katyn massacreduring which university professors, physicians, lawyers, engineers, teachers, writers and journalists were murdered.
The concept of intelligentsia must not be confused with the notion of intellectuals. Its members thought of themselves as united, by something more than mere interest in ideas; they conceived themselves as being a dedicated order, almost a secular priesthood, devoted to the spreading of a specific attitude to life.
The Russian philosopher Sergei Bulgakov said that the Russian intelligentsia was the creation of Peterthat they were the "window to Europe through which the Western air comes to us, vivifying and toxic at the same time. Originally composed of educated nobles, the intelligentsia became dominated by raznochintsy class-less people after The proportion of commoners increased from Similarly the number of periodicals increased from 15 in to periodical publications in Bythere were 47, of them, most were liberal radicals.
Although Tsar Peter the Great introduced the Idea of Progress to Russia, by the 19th century, the Tsars did not recognize "progress" as a legitimate aim of the state, to the degree that Nicholas II said "How repulsive I find that word" and wished it removed from the Russian language.
Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. February Learn how and when to remove this template message In Russia, the Bolsheviks did not consider the status class of the intelligentsiya to be a true social classas defined in Marxist philosophy.
In that time, the Bolsheviks used the Russian word prosloyka stratum to identify and define the intelligentsia as a separating layer without an inherent class character. In the creation of post-monarchic Russia, Lenin was firmly critical of the class character of the intelligentsia, commending the growth of "the intellectual forces of the workers and the peasants" and asserting that the "bourgeoisie and their accomplices", regardless of the depth of their education, were "lackeys of capital".
Some Russians emigrated, the political reactionaries joined the right-wing White movement for counter-revolution, some became Bolsheviks, and some remained in Russia and participated in the political system of the USSR.
In reorganising Russian society, the Bolsheviks rid themselves, by fair and foul means, of class enemiesby way of deportation on Philosophers' shipsforced labour in the gulagand summary execution. Although the Bolsheviks recognised the managerial importance of the intelligentsia to the future of soviet Russia, the bourgeois origin of this stratum gave reason for distrust of their ideological commitment to Marxist philosophy.
In an interview by H. Wells, Joseph Stalin addresses this question at length: Next it is necessary to organise the assistance of an auxiliary force for this main force; in this case this auxiliary force is the Party, to which the best forces of the intelligentsia belong.
Just now you spoke about 'educated people. Were there not plenty of educated people on the side of the old order in England in the seventeenth century, in France at the end of the eighteenth century, and in Russia in the epoch of the October Revolution?
The old order had in its service many highly educated people who defended the old order, who opposed the new order. Education is a weapon the effect of which is determined by the hands which wield it, by who is to be struck down.
Of course, the proletariat, socialism, needs highly educated people.
Clearly, simpletons cannot help the proletariat to fight for socialism, to build a new society.The tensions brought about by the war, of five million dead or wounded, of the army’s bread ration being cut by a third between December and February , of .
The Russian Revolution of divided the intelligentsia and the social classes of Tsarist Russia. Some Russians emigrated, the political reactionaries joined the right-wing White movement for counter-revolution, some became Bolsheviks, and some remained in Russia and participated in the political system of the USSR.
The Russian Intelligentsia, a group of people who shared the bond of being intelligent and against the government, played the key role in overthrowing the tsarist government and instating a new government. The rebels involved in the beginning of the revolution started off with the people of Russia in mind.
1. Tsarist government was predicated on the tsar’s supreme autocratic power, which was inviolable. 2. Tsarism had no democracy, representation or accountability at higher levels. All officials were chosen by the tsar. 3. Beyond the capital, tsarist decrees were implemented and enforced by provincial governors and bureaucrats.
4. The Role of the Russian Intelligentsia in Overthrowing the Tsarist Government PAGES 2. WORDS 1, View Full Essay. More essays like this: Not sure what I'd do without @Kibin - Alfredo Alvarez, student @ Miami University. Exactly what I needed.
- Jenna Kraig, student @ UCLA. Wow. Most helpful essay resource ever! Russian Intelligentsia and the Bolshevik Revolution In the aftermath of the Bolshevik Revolution of there was a battle for the mind of the new Soviet man with artists and intellectuals engaged in the struggle between the old Tsarist and the new Soviet culture.